The One-Web Vision and Personal Communications

Bernd J. Kurz Faculty of Computer Science University of New Brunswick Fredericton, N.B., Canada E3B 5A3

1. The Current Dilemma 2. Convergence from Diversity to the One Web 3. UMTS in a Nutsghell 4. Issues of UMTS as One-Web Presented at CS/NRC Forum on 'One-Web' Fredericton, N.B., May 2001 ==========================================================

1. The Current Dilemma

Information-hungry PCS users want it all

cordless telephone receive news, stock quotes cellular phone PC wired to the Internet Blackberry e-mail PC wired/wireless LAN PDA wireless to the Internet wireless keyboards and mice FRS geographical locator/navigator The future calls for wireless for mobility

The problem is

we don't have enough pockets to hold all those many devices different networks for each communication service wired and wireless but all do the same - provide communication why so diverse ? why so costly ? Fig 1.1 Fixed, Mobile and Internet Growth Fig 1.2 Up/Downstream Traffic Forecast ==========================================================

The Convergence from Diversity to the One-Web

A bit of History first

The European Scenario - a Lesson learned

1980... monopolistic analog cellular systems 1st generation incompatibility across national borders costly and unaffordable 1990... PCS digital cellular system for global use 2nd generation single standard - GSM tight integration into evolving ISDN framework wired & wireless global acceptance and fast penetration global roaming and single user ID 1996... DECT cordless telephone system roamable 1998... enhanced data capabilies for GSM 2.5th generation SMS, e-mail, WAP GPRS, HSCSD, EDGE data traffic exceeded voice traffic in Nov 2000 2001... digital GSM coverage across Europe, Middle and Far East, Africa global roaming with single user ID Fig 2.1 Wieless Coverage in Europe ==========================================================

The Convergence from Diversity to the One-Web .....continued

The North American Scenario - a Lesson not learned

1980... single standard analog cellular system, AMPS 1st generation continent-wide roaming quick acceptance and wide coverage affordable 1990... rudimentary data service for AMPS: CDPD sporadic and industrial use 1995... Industry Canada licenses PCS digital cellular systems 2nd gen. four incompatible systems by four providers CDMA (IS95, Qualcomm) TDMA (IS136) TDMA (D-AMPS) GSM (PCS1900) no direct interoperability no direct inter-roaming capability independent of land-line networks slow penetration across country 2000... data capabilities and services 2.5th generation SMS, e-mail, WAP 2001... sporadic coverage except in larger cities loosely integrated in mostly analog-subscriber networks Fig 2.2 Wireless Coverage in North America ==========================================================

The Convergence from Diversity to the One-Web .....continued

The Trend of Integration

splintered infrastructures converging to one single network integrating wired and wireless accommodating multi-capability devices mobility of users mobility of terminals mobility of services/resources voice, data and low-BW video (MM) phone-centric approach IP-based data

Evolution of 3rd Generation Mobile Communication (3G)

1990... FPLMTS vision (NorthAmerica) 1996... IMT-2000 vision (ITU) multi-tier cellular system landline interconnections multi-band/multi mode terminals unrestricted global roaming 1998... UMTS highly developed implementation of part of IMT-2000 2001... first UMTS deployments Fig 2.3 IMT-200, the Emerging Network ==========================================================

UMTS in a Nutshell

A multi-tier personal communication infrastructure from pico cells to macro cells accessible by single terminal each cell for different user characteristics intra-tier and inter-tier switching (hand-off)

Migration paths from today's PCS systems

economical paths are crucial for success ISDN coverage beneficial for ease of integration with land-line nets pico cell: Bluetooth micro cells: DECT macro cells: PCS - GSM, TDMA, CDMA mega cells: LEO satellite, Globalstar (Iridium)

Current UMTS deployments

Jan 2001 Japan, i-Mode (cHTML) publically accessible during 2001 Europe, particularly UK, trials, GSM & GPRS (WAP-WML)

Current Status of PCS / UMTS deployment (selected locations)

Generation N.B. Canada US Europe Japan ---------------------------------------------------------- 1 (analog) XXX XXX XXX 2 (PCS) X XX XX 2.5 (PCS) x xx xx XXX XXX 3 (UMTS) X XX land-line a a a/d d/ISDN d subs. access a = analog, d = digital ==========================================================

Issues of UMTS as One-Web

Network Architecture

Phone-centric rather than computer-centric air interfaces and multiplexing mode TDMA vs CDMA (DSSS, FHSS) possibilities paths of migration from current systems new interfaces - Bluetooth, LAN 802.11, LEO QoS enabling handoffs inter-tier and intra-tier multi-band/multi-mode terminals diverse capability terminals input devices display resolution micro browsers: WAP - cHTML - HTML - XML bandwidth GPRS, HSCSD, EDGE: 64kbps...144kbps...384kpbs...2Mbps QoS terminal addressing IP-based limited address space, IPV6 geographic routing security peer communications (ad-hoc) ?? VoIP replacing CCT-switching emulation ?? IETF protocol suite (SIP/SAP) Fig 4.1 Migration Paths to UMTS ==========================================================

Issues of UMTS as One-Web.....continued

Mobility Issues

user mobility single global address (ID) - GSM Smart Card user profile, authentication terminal mobility multi-band/mode device capability-aware networks naming, identification, mobile IP service mobility resource discovery directory conventions, X.500 & LDAP global access Gateways for protocol & presentation format conversion HTTP - WTP XML- HTML - WML terminal discovery single progressive-resolution master pages intelligent conversion from single-master pages localization (GPS, GPS-less) tariffs and accounting legal, regulatory, cultural aspects


ticket purchases airport check-in vending machines virtual Call Centres Multi-Media monitoring, notification intelligent cars, appliances Killer applications ? Fig 4.1 Cellular Phone for Web browsing Fig 4.2 Cellular Phone/PDA Combination ==========================================================


AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data cHTML compact Hypertext Markup Language CCT Circuit D-AMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone (originally: Digital European Cordless Telephone) DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum EDGE Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution E-mail Electronic Mail FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum FPLMTS Future Personal Land Mobile Telecommunication System FRS Family Radio System GPRS General Packet Radio System GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System of Mobility (originally: Groupe Spécial Mobilité) HSCSD High Speed Circuit-Switched Data HTML Hypertext Markup Language IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 IP Internet Protocol IPV6 Internet Protocol Version 6 ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network IS## Interim Standard ## ITU International Telecommunications Union LAN Local Area Network LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LEO Low Earth Orbiting MM Multi Media PC Personal Computer PCS Personal Communication Service (or System) PDA Personal Digital Assistant QoS Quality of Service SAP Session Announcement Protocol SIP Session Initiation Protocol SMS Small Messaging System TDMA Time Domain Multiple Access UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System VoIP Voice ovr IP WAP Wireless Application Protocol WML Wireless Markup Language XML Extensible Markup Language X.## ITU standard for digital networks 3G Third Generation

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Last revised: 2 May 2001, BJK